Are you a girl who regularly skips breakfast? Read on because this well-controlled study is for you.
Introduction: Breakfast skipping is strongly associated with a greater chance of weight gain. Furthermore, this trend is also linked to poorer food choices. Higher protein meals are becoming more popular as a way to improve satiety and appetite control. The purpose of this study was to examine if it is better to skip breakfast or eat one higher in protein in regards to appetite control throughout the remainder of the day.
Methods: Twenty overweight or obese girls between the age of 15-20 who normally skip breakfast were recruited for this study. They were tracked for 7 consecutive days and randomized to one of 3 groups: breakfast skipping (BS), a normal cereal meal for breakfast (NP), or a high-protein breakfast (HP) consisting of beef and eggs for breakfast. Breakfast and lunch were controlled but the rest of the day they were free to eat as much as they wanted.
- NP & HP led to a 60% reduction in daily hunger.
- HP lead to a greater increase in total fullness.
- NP & HP led to a 30% reduction in daily desire to eat.
- HP breakfast but not the others suppressed an important hunger stimulating hormone (ghrelin) by 20%.
- HP breakfast but not the others increased an important satiety-stimulating hormone (PYY) by 250%.
- BS & NP led to greater evening snacking than HP.
Discussion/Conclusion: A small breakfast of merely 350kcal led to reductions in perceived hunger, the desire to eat, and prospective food consumption. In addition, it also increased fullness. What is even more interesting is that the high-protein breakfast group had additional benefits of a reduction in the hunger-stimulating hormone ghrelin, increases in PYY (a hormone that makes you feel fuller), and decreases in evening snacking, particularly of high-fat foods. The authors note that a limitation of this study was that the breakfast skipping group and the high-protein group had similar total amounts of calories consumed during the day. Although this study looked at 1-week of food consumption, it is not certain if eating a high-protein meal for longer periods of time (a year or more) would prevent weight gain.
My input: The most obvious inferences that the authors draw come from the simple fact that the breakfast skipping group is fasted. Of course, their perceived hunger/fulness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption will be higher in the morning because they just woke up. I think the most powerful part of the study came from the blood draws and the actual measurable physiological significance that a high-protein breakfast did decrease a hormone responsible for making you want to eat and increase a hormone that tells your brain that you are full.That is what truly stands out as powerful rather than all the other results based solely on questionnaires. For that reason, I’d suggest trying out the high-protein diet over your standard cereal-based breakfast and seeing how it works with your own feelings of satiety throughout the day.
Leidy et al Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr;97(4):677-88